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医院检验科实验室规划建设应该如何布局呢?

来源:http://www.sdrunjing.com/ 日期:2020-08-26 发布人:runjing
  检验科是临床医学和基础医学之间的桥梁,包括临床化学、临床微生物学、临床免疫学、血液学、体液学以及输血学等分支学科。
  Laboratory medicine is a bridge between clinical medicine and basic medicine, including clinical chemistry, clinical microbiology, clinical immunology, hematology, humoral science and blood transfusion.
  一、分组
  1、 Grouping
  检验科按检查分组:临检、生化、免疫、微生物。临检检查项目包含: 血液、 血液寄生虫、尿液、粪便、体液及脑脊液、血栓性 疾病、G-6PD酶缺乏、地贫、 阵发性睡眠性血红蛋白尿、自体溶血性、 血液病形态学、新生儿疾病筛查。生化检查项目包含:生物全项、肝功能、肾功能、糖尿病、血脂、心肌损伤、贫血、离子检查、血、尿淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶原、血脂肪酶。免疫检查项目包含:感染疾病、病毒标志物、肿瘤标志物、特种蛋白、自身抗体、骨代谢类、激素。微生物检查项目包含:细菌、真菌、病毒、支原体、衣原体等。
  The laboratory was divided into clinical examination, biochemistry, immunology and microorganism. Clinical examination items include: blood, blood parasites, urine, feces, body fluid and cerebrospinal fluid, thrombotic disease, G-6PD enzyme deficiency, thalassemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, autohemolysis, morphology of blood diseases, and neonatal disease screening. Biochemical examination items include: biological items, liver function, renal function, diabetes mellitus, blood lipid, myocardial injury, anemia, ion examination, blood and urine amylase, trypsinogen and blood lipase. Immune examination items include: infectious diseases, virus markers, tumor markers, special proteins, autoantibodies, bone metabolism, hormones. Microbial examination items include: bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycoplasma, chlamydia, etc.
        山东实验室装修设计
  二、检验样本
  2、 Test sample
  一般 有:血液、尿液、粪便、腹积水等。
  Generally have: blood, urine, feces, abdominal water, etc.
  三、医院检验科分区一般分生活区、实验区。
  3、 The laboratory division of the hospital is generally divided into living area and experimental area.
  生活区:办公室、示教室、值班室
  Living area: office, classroom and duty room
  检验区:主检验室、辅助检验室
  Inspection area: main laboratory and auxiliary laboratory
  四、PCR实验室布局设计
  4、 Layout design of PCR Laboratory
  PCR实验室又叫基因扩增实验室(聚合酶链式反应)是一种分子生物学技术,用于放大特定的DNA片段。广泛应用于:检验艾滋病、乙型肝炎、禽疫病、癌基因的检测和诊断、DNA指纹、个体识别、亲子鉴别及法医物证、动植物检疫、食品卫生检测、转基因作物与转基因微生物检测等。
  PCR laboratory, also known as gene amplification Laboratory (PCR), is a kind of molecular biology technology, which is used to amplify specific DNA fragments. It is widely used in the detection and diagnosis of AIDS, hepatitis B, avian disease, oncogene, DNA fingerprint, individual identification, paternity identification and forensic material evidence, animal and plant quarantine, food hygiene detection, transgenic crops and genetically modified microorganisms detection.
  检验科的PCR实验室:一般分四个区:试剂准备区-标本制备区-基因扩增区-产物分析区。
  PCR Laboratory of laboratory: generally divided into four areas: reagent preparation area sample preparation area gene amplification area product analysis area.
  五、HIV初筛实验室
  5、 HIV screening laboratory
  区分:洁净区、半污染区、污染区
  Division: clean area, semi polluted area and polluted area
  洁净区:医生收发标本报告(办公室等);
  Clean area: doctors send and receive specimen reports (office, etc.);
  半污染区:缓冲间、洗消间等;
  Semi polluted area: buffer room, decontamination room, etc;
  污染区:标本检验(检验区)。主要设备:生物安全柜、离心机、高压灭菌锅等。
  Contaminated area: specimen inspection (inspection area). Main equipment: biosafety cabinet, centrifuge, autoclave, etc.
  实验室装修设计
  Laboratory decoration design
  六、医院检验科在院内选址要求:
  6、 Site selection requirements of laboratory department in hospital:
  首先,临检是必不可少的一部分,也是在检验科的前端;检验科一般选在靠近门诊的地方;接收血液、尿液、粪便等样本的窗口也要着重考虑,以方便患者;在设对医院内物流系统也有一定要求,传统方式是采用人工推送送去各科室。随着国家的发展,社会的进步,现在有的医院采用“流水线”式的物流方式,从样本接收窗口到送各个检验科室或化验室,就像分检快递般的物流系统,从而省去了人工,大大提高了工作效率,为医院创收更大的价值,更好更快的服务于广大群众。但是此物流系统造价比较昂贵,因此,现在大多数医院还是采用传统物流方式。
  First of all, the clinical examination is an indispensable part, and it is also in the front-end of the laboratory; the laboratory is generally selected near the outpatient department; the window for receiving blood, urine, feces and other samples should also be considered to facilitate the patients; in the design, there are certain requirements for the hospital logistics system, and the traditional way is to use manual push to each department. With the development of the country and the progress of society, some hospitals now adopt the "assembly line" logistics mode, from the sample receiving window to sending to each inspection department or laboratory, just like the logistics system of separate inspection and express delivery, so as to save manpower, greatly improve work efficiency, create greater value for hospital income, better and faster service to the masses. However, the cost of this logistics system is relatively expensive, so most hospitals still use the traditional logistics mode.
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